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Vibro compaction is one technology for soil deep compaction
The method is suitable for water rich, fairly clean, free of clay sand. The periodically changing forces through vibration at certain moments affect the soil particles contact tension. As the friction in sand that holds the grains together is dependent upon the normal tension at contact points and when the tension is reduced to a certain level or becomes zero, then the shifting of grains becomes possible resulting in tighter packing of grains.
The drawing shows the recommended integration regions where only vibro compaction is possible and from whereon compaction must be used together with adding filler material (crushed stone, gravel, sand).
Sinking - the tool (vibrator) is sunk to the depth required by the project using its own weight and vibration. To simplify sinking, if necessary water is used, which is sprayed under pressure into the surface through openings at the end of the vibrator. Water reduces the density between the soil particles which reduces the friction between the vibrator and the soil.
Compaction - once the depth required by the project is achieved soil compaction is started working from the bottom upwards (using increments of 0.5 m or 1.0 m) working with the vibrator in interval series (30 - 60 sec). Vibration reduces the friction that holds the soil particles together which results in the possibility to pack the particles tighter together. In the compaction area, on the ground, a cylindrical funnel is formed which indicates that compaction has taken place. The density can be measured using for example blow penetration.
Refilling - the funnel around the vibrator is filled with suitable on-site or transported appropriate filler material or soil. The material is added until the vibrator has ended compaction and is removed from the soil.
Finishing - Compaction results in a cylindrical soil column. The vibrator is inserted in the next location and the entire work site is filled with compacted soil columns. Usually deep compaction of the surface area reduces its volume by 5-15%.
Rock column creation through vibration is a deep compaction technology.
Rock column creation through adding filler from top to bottom is used for cohesive, water rich soils.
Gravel or crushed stone is added from the ground into the vibrator drilled hole using an excavator or loader. The column network is created according to the project, which in addition to drawings includes thorough geotechnical calculations.
Sinking - a vibrator using its own weight and vibrations creates a cylindrical hole in the soil to the depth required by the project. The process is simplified by adding air or water which is sprayed under pressure into the surface using openings at the end of the vibrator.
Adding filler - having achieved the required depth the vibrator is removed from the soil and the surface hole is filled with crushed stones or gravel.
Compaction - After adding crushed stones or gravel the material is compacted again using the vibrator. The vibrator is vibrated into the surrounding soil and the rock column solid state material is compacted to the required level. The next batch of filler is added and compacted again.
Finishing - Adding filler material and compaction processes are repeated until a well compacted rock column is formed that relates well with the surrounding soil and is even with the work surface.
Work is executed according to following standards
EVS-EN 14731:2005 "Execution of special geotechnical works - Group treatment by deep Vibration”